What is IoT
Nowadays, most of the interactions performed through the Internet consist on the human–human connections. However, everyday more and more Smart Objects can connect themselves to the Internet and in the future we can expect to have more connected Smart Objects than persons. These objects can interact between themselves, send data to each other and perform certain action when certain conditions are met. Heterogeneous objects interacting between themselves: That is the definition of Internet of Things.
IoT appeared in response to the necessities of the supply chains and the identification of objects, persons and animal through the use of RFID intelligent tags. Subsequently, with the use of RFID, we can assign a single identifier to an object. We can locate a certain object for a certain task. However, for the Internet of Things to exist, three steps are required: integrated intelligence, connectivity and interaction. That is why the base for Internet of Things are the sensors and the RFID cards. And yet, these are not the only ones. According to Near Field Communications (NFC), the sensor networks, Actuators Networks (WSAN) and RFID, ‘‘are the atomic components that will merge the real world with the digital world’’. Sensors can capture almost any kind of information, change or data. These can be processed by a Smart Object (a Smartphone, for instance) or sent to a server.
By using the RFID intelligent tags we can identify different objects, so, through radiofrequency, we can know the properties of this element and monitor it. If we combine both of them, a certain object will be able to perform an action as a reaction to an event captured by a certain sensor. To achieve these objectives, we need an intelligent infrastructure capable of connecting the different objects and granting them enough intelligence to interact with each other. In some cases communicating them the decision they have to make. It would only be necessary if the Smart Objects do not have intelligence of their own or if they need it in a certain moment because of an external decision.